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Aesthetics & Allure For The Skin You're In

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Skin Care Video & Text Guides
For An Ultimately Beautiful You

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Pizazz-TV 1 Shimmering Red Lips Made Easy
Always consult a healthcare professional before starting any beauty treatment

YOUR BEAUTIFICATION GUIDES MENU

TEXT & ILLUSTRATION SKIN CARE & BEAUTY GUIDES
1. SKIN CARE GUIDE OVERVIEW
2. SKIN CONTAMINATION & CLOGGED SKIN PORES
3. EVALUATING HAIR REMOVAL METHODS
4. THE ELEMENTS OF YOUR SKIN
5. THE ESSENTIALS OF SKIN HYGIENE
6. DIMINISHING STRETCH MARKS
7. 'CELLULITE' ALTRUISM
8. DEBUNKING THE WRINKLE REMOVAL MYTH
9. SKIN CARE PRODUCT INGREDIENT DATABASE
10. CERTAIN MEDS CAN CAUSE SKIN BLEMISHES
11. EGG-BANANA-MILK FACIAL LIFT vs BOTOX
12 KEEPING SKIN TONED DURING, AFTER PREGNANCY
13. SKIN CARE & BEAUTY FAQ
14. AMERICAN CANCER SOCIETY SKIN SAFETY ADVISORIES
15. IMPORTANT TANNING BOOTH HAZARD ADVISORY
16. HAVE SHIMMERING MOVIE STAR LIPS FOR UNDER $10
17. BEAUTY PRODUCTS YOU CAN MAKE AT HOME
18. STUDY: LINK BETWEEN SKIN PROBLEMS & GENETICS
19. RESEARCH AFFIRMS ANTIOXIDANTS BENEFICIAL TO SKIN
20/ REPORT LINKS SKIN TONE WITH BODY HEALTH
21, MAKE YOUR LEGS STUNNINGLY BEAUTIFUL
22. FRE SKIN & BEAUTY CARE PERSONAL CONSULTATION


XOTERIA PIZAZZ-TV BEAUTY CARE VIDEOS
BTV1. BEAUTY TRENDS & SIMPLICITY
BTV2. VISUAL SKIN CARE TIPS
BTV3. EYE SHADOW BEAUTY DEMONSTRATION
BTV4. ORGANIC BEAUTY CARE
BTV5. ATTAIN GLOWING SKIN
BTV6. HEIDI KLUM'S BEAUTY SECRETS

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Your Skin Care Guide
Introduction & Overview



We have compiled for you the most essentials for your day to day skin care aesthetics, the outer you beauty and allure. Here, as you scroll down and read on or use the chapter menu you will find what you need to know about keeping your skin at it's upmost health and captivating aura. We, at Xoteria, are always are here to provide you with specific information for your own personal skin care needs. You are cordially invited to use the skin care consultation form at the end of this webpage. Xoteria's personal services to you are free first time and every time. Our holistic naturopathic wellness specialist and aesthetician, along with other consultants, are pleased to assist you and present here this comprehensive guide for the skin you're in.


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Skin Problems: Clogged Pores & Dermal Inflammations

Everyone's skin is in some way affected by environmental factors. Atmosphere, wind, climate heat, humidity, to name but a few elements, have an often detrimental effect on skin, as does exposure to the sun's rays, but dermal affectations are in various ways to different persons.

Is it true sun bathing can cause skin cancer, even with sun tan oils and blockers? Yes, even in very young girls. Almost everyone is vulnerable. The sun's rays can also cause blotching, premature aging (and we all know about sunburn). The sun's rays beating on your body for a periods of time is, in essence, a slow roasting of your flesh not unlike meat cooking in an oven. Between radiated heat, ultraviolet rays, and the activating sweat glands, your skin cells are becoming both clogged and impaired. Another affectation is broken capillaries, tiny blood vessels under your surface skin layer. Even if you don't get "sunburned", you are still destroying skin cells and inhibiting essential lymphatic functions by extended exposure to the sun . The clogged pores, irritated cells and/or broken capillaries will often result in red blotches on some skin, brown dots on other types, also various types of "speckles" and other visible abnormalities. Skin exposures to rain, snow, sleet, sandy areas, as well dusty environments, hot and/or humid areas (interior or exterior) also cause these types of skin blemishes.

Clogged pores cause most of the common skin blotches, speckles and other unsightly types of dermal flaws. When skin pores "can't breathe," this causes irritation to and inflammation of the capillaries we discussed (again, tiny, thin blood vessels just beneath skin layers, supplemental to the veins) . When the capillaries become inflamed, they "break," causing redness, in some people, streaks, in others dots or blotches on the surface of the skin. This affliction is akin to, but not similar cause to, varicose veins.

CLOGGED SKIN PORES:

What gets "clogged" inside your tiny skin pores are environmental dirt and grime. This is not to say you're "dirty," you could bathe or shower three times a day and still have a serious problem with clogged pores. On your face, for example, residue from make-up, even skin moisturizers can clog pores. Pancake make-up, especially the heavy theatrical type, rouge, eye color, base applique may all cause facial skin pore clogging for they eventually become "grit" inside the pores. Dusty environments, rainy weather, wind, emissions from vehicles, many environmental factors clog the pores of your skin all over the body, especially your legs while wearing skirts, shorts, swimsuits, etc. The beach is great for vacationing, the worst for skin clogging elements and environments. Astringents ("skin cleaners") work to remove these damaging skin clogs, but it is imperative to use the correct type of astringent for your specific skin type. Appliques too abrasive can cause further inflamation, damage ~ and make things worse! Those of insufficient strength for your skin type are ineffective. Astringents must be used following a regular regiment that is right for you and also used in combination with skin therapies such as collagen (restores suppleness), elastin (restores elasticity) and other conditioners, but only those that are appropriate for your skin and particular condition.


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Hair Removal Methods

Shaving leg, underarm or bikini line hair with a razor usually causes excessive friction and irritation..."razor burn."
See LEGS MADE BEAUTIFUL for more information on leg beauty. This may easily result in redness and tiny bumps (dry or wet postulations). Better: use a depilatory - best: one that is naturopathic. Professional leg waxing at a salon, electrolysis, laser methods, are excellent treatments (if you have the time and money), however, it is possible they, too, may also cause irritation and skin discoloration depending on how sensitive or fair your skin is. Consult with a dermatologist before having extensive salon treatments. Absolutely avoid the mail order catalog tape strips and electrical hair removing gadgets. These can severely damage skin and they simply don't work.

Remember, importantly, not only does skin chemistry and properties vary from person to person, but also on different areas of your own body. The flesh of your leg calves differ from the flesh of your thighs and the skin on your back is different from the front of your torso, breast area and face. Skin conditioners that do wonders for your complexion may have disastrous results used on your legs. For that reason, expensive salons treat each part of the body distinctly.


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The Essence & Elements Of Your Skin

Skin is your body's largest organ. It consists of three layers: the epidermis, the dermis and the subcutaneous .

The epidermis is the outer layer of skin, your delicate veneer, composed of epithelial cells. The dermis, the layer underneath the epidermis, contains blood vessels, lymphatic tissue, nerves, sweat glands, hair follicles and sebaceous glands which produce and secrete oil to protect you against bacterial infections, so long as your outer skin is intact. When you have a wound, cut or abrasion, the bacteria protection is compromised.

The third layer, the subcutaneous layer, is a supporting layer of fatty tissue. Skin is a complex organ. It enables regulatory functions. It maintains body temperature, When you perspire, your skin cells are endeavoring to compensate for excessive heat and humidity. This also helps prevent dehydration and rids the body of waste, by exuding sweat.

The skin also functions as a defense mechanism, protecting the internal organs against contamination and injury. It also produces Vitamin D3, which helps the body use calcium and phosphorous to maintain healthy bone tissue. Finally, due to the network of nerve tissue running through the skin, it is responsible for producing sensations such as pain, heat, and cold.

Proper skin care is important to maintaining health, and is an integral part of overall wound management. Many factors are involved in caring for the skin. As we have previously delineating danger from too much sun absorption at the beach, Re-emphasizing: the sun's rays affect your skin in very harmful and hazardous ways. To prevent damage, avoid deliberate exposure to the sun. Start a habit of using a Sun Screen with sun protection factor (SPF) of 15 every day. Certain moisturizers actually contain SPF in their ingredients, particularly certain facial moisturizers. Apply the Sun Screen twenty minutes prior to sun exposure, and reapply every two hours.


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Dermal Hygiene

Daily skin hygiene is an important step in maintaining health. There are many cleaning products on the market; exercise caution in selecting products for use and monitor skin for possible adverse reactions. Cleanse your skin every day.

Moisturize your skin regularly. Moisturizers prevent water loss by either drawing moisture to the outer layer of the skin, or coating the skin's surface with a layer of substance, sealing moisture into the skin. Moisturizing products include petrolatum, mineral oil, lanolin, and silicone products. Glycerin, proteins, and vitamins attract water to the skin.

Inspect your skin carefully and often. Take notice of any birthmarks, moles, areas of redness, bumps, rashes, or irregularities. Report any changes to your health care practitioner.



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HOW TO MAKE YOUR LEGS STUNNING,
BREATHTAKINGLY BEAUTIFUL
click here



Cellulite Altruism

"Cellulite" is actually a advertising catchphrase for fat globules which band around the fibrous tissue of any part of your body, but especially buttocks and thighs. Unfortunately the most physically fit girl can develop cellulite, even in preteen years. Cellulite does not "burn off" with calorie reduction or strenuous exercise. However, the less fat on your body, the less likely fat deposits (the globules) are to overwhelm fibrous dermal bands, Use an exercise regimen to burn fat and increase muscle. Liposuction is not all it is claimed to be. Liposuction most likely may not be an answer to reduce cellulite Since tight bands of fat globular fibrous tissue result in what is referred to as cellulite, extracting the fat layer that resides just under the skin may actually exacerbate (make worse) the fat globules and the resulting "cellulite" appearance. Avoid "junk food" that increases your body fat. Be wary of so-called anti-cellulite supplements. Their value has never been medically proven.

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Stretch Marks

Many women have chosen Cocoa Butter Oil well massaged three times a day into affected skin areas as the best treatment for diminishing the appearances of stretch marks, especially those of post-pregnancy. In a study, After 5 to 10 days of Cocoa Butter treatment, a very large per centage of women, 87% in the 20 to 49 age range, attained significantly reduced affectation of stretch marks, according to a 2002 study at the Beyer Naturopathic Cosmetology Institute.



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The "Wrinkle Remover" Myth

No matter who claims there is, a major national cosmetic company or fly-by-night TV infomercial peddler, there is absolutely nothing known to dermatology that removes wrinkles from skin. Any medical professional will attest this. Truth be known, the active ingredient in most costly, so-called "wrinkle removers" is plain old white petroleum jelly ("Vaseline" rtm), glycerine or lanolin ("Cold Cream"), which can be purchased for a fraction of the price of hyped "wrinkle creams." The results you notice when you try the expensive "miracle" wrinkle removing products are subjective, not remedial. In other words, your skin may look like it has less wrinkles (for a period of time), because emollients, like petroleum gel, it's mineral oil cousin, lanolin and so forth, soften the skin (but don't cure age and stretch lines); they improves appearance only temporarily. As long as you know this and accept the facts, it's fine. But, why pay fifty dollars for a jar of wrinkle cream when a $2.98 jar of lanolin ("Cold Cream") does equally as well? We do not recommend, nor do professional cosmetologists, using white petroleum jelly ("Vaseline" rtm). Yet, we discovered the "special ingredient" in one "wrinkle relaxer" advertised on national TV was petroleum jelly. Petroleum jelly is great for soothing skin abrasions and rashes, and that's what the labels on petroleum jelly ointment tubes and cans will tell you it's for. Another claim which touts that elastin or retinal will "remove wrinkles" is also false. Elastin, an excellent skin toner, firms, contours and tightens skin, but does not remove wrinkles; in fact, the tightening action may make the wrinkles more noticeable. Retinal, also marketed as Retinyl, (generically, Vitamin A) is an excellent skin nutrient, but neither does it remove wrinkles. Nothing does or can. Go for a light skin softener, use the inexpensive pharmaceutical creams that do the job just as well as the boutique-ish come ons and spend the money you saved on a treat for yourself!


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TABLE I: WHAT THE MOST USED SKIN CARE PRODUCTS/INGREDIENTS DO:

allantoin a skin cell restorative
aloe vera soothes skin
astringents cleanses skin pores, extracts dirt, grit, contaminants
     sample naturopathic astringents: avacado, lemon peel
balms naturopathically soothe, soften skin
bee pollen a skin cell restorative, skin softener
chamomile soothes, nourishes, helps tone skin
collagen skin cell restorative
elastin firms, tightens, contours, tones specific skin areas
emollients e.g. skin softeners
eucalyptus (menthol) skin soother
gentian a skin cell restorative
glycerine softens, soothes skin
lanolin softens, soothes skin
isopropyl alcohol removes surface bacteria, dries skin
oatmeal an astringent supplement (supports pore cleansing)
petroleum jelly softens, soothes skin
retinal/retinyl A an A vitamin concentrate, skin nutrient
tea tree oil/tee tree oil a skin soother, softener
vitamins A, D, E important skin nutrition vitamins


MOSTLY UTILIZED MEDICALLY PRESCRIBED INGREDIENTS
Listed in order of strength and side effect hazard

cortisteroids (i.e. Lidex, Diprolene) topical steroids for severe cases of skin ailments, e.g. pustular psoriasis
betamethasone (i.e. Valisone) class B topisteroid for chronic itching, redness
calcipotrien (i.e. Dovenex) highly concentrated Vitamin D
coal tar ointment (otc/prescription, i.e. Eldin) tar concentrate for moderate to severe skin ailments, e.g. psoriasis, exczema
urea (otc & prescription) chronic dry skin
tolnaftate (otc/prescription) anti-fungal, usually for "athlete's foot."
provodine-iodine (Betadyne Solution) clinical antibacteriastat
lisadimate, octyl, oxybenzone, padimate O acne treatment ingredients


Bath Water Additives Various forms of skin treatments, including moisturizers and tar oil for psoriasis (hyperactive skin cell growth syndrome) are designated to be added to bath water. In general, it is not a good idea to mix these preparations with "bubble bath" and scent powders.


CERTAIN PRESCRIPTION MEDICATIONS
CAN CAUSE SKIN BLEMISHES


All medications may have specific side effects which include dermal reactions. Ask your doctor about the those prescribed for you. For example, certain antibiotics, especially the sulfurics (Bactrim, Macrobid) may cause skin to darken, particularly the lower legs. Blood thinners (i.e. Coumadin [Warfarin]) may cause red blotches, streaks or exacerbate varicose veins. Diuretics ("water pills") may dry your skin or cause tiny cracks. Everyone is different. A certain medication may have a contraindication on one person, but not another. If you believe a skin affectation is caused by a prescription you are taking, don't jump to conclusions or stop/reduce doses. Consult with the health care professional who ordered the "scrip." She or he may provide a solution, an alternative, or recommend an additional consultation with a dermatologost.


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Fertibella: Advanced Conception

PREGNANCY AND YOUR SKIN

KEEPING YOUR SKIN SUPPLE AND TONED DURING PREGNANCY

Pregnancy doesn't have to mean dry, cracked skin, oily slin, or stretch marks. Keep your abdominal area toned with a mild lubricant (Curel rates the best, also Lubriderm), along with a little known remedy for stretch marks: pure virgin Olive Oil (ingest one drop each day and apply lightly on your abdominal area. Combine this with a diet rich in fruits and veggies and perform mild exercise bedtop daily with very light weights (arm and ankle weights not more than two pounds) during pregnancy. Unless you are allergic to dairy products (lactose intolerant), drink more milk and eat yogurt daily, as the active cultures in yogurt, friendly bacteria, will reduce harmful intestinal bacteria, creating a more healthy environment for mother and baby...it will show in the skin glow! You are welcomed to use our consultation form for personal prenatal care advice.
Healthline

Skin Care F.A.Q.


I am 16 and my face is all broken out with acne. I tried everything, nothing works. What should I do?

Avoid using heavy cosmetics until you see a dermatologist. If over the counter acne preparations aren't working, competent medical treatment is the only sensible approach. Don't do anything to irritate you acne, especially, picking at the breakout areas. Use only a very mild soap, cream (i.e. Dove) or cocoa butter (i.e. Tone) to wash your face and pat dry with a soft tissue rather than rub with a towel. The most important thing is to get to the skin specialist physician now.


I heard that applying Olive Oil to your entire body is like a fountain of youth. Is this true?

There is no miracle anti-aging or anti-wrinkle application. Olive oil may appear to diminish wrinkles, but it is actually clogging your pores and doing more harm than good. Leave olive oil for cooking.


I have both dry and oily skin, either my condition swings from one to the other or different parts of my body have extreme opposite areas of condition. What should I do?

See a dermatologist. This type of skin is not as uncommon as people who have it may believe. Your skin doctor will advise you how to best treat your skin. After you receive the physician's evaluation, a cosmetologist can help you follow the plan of action, or consult with our experts here.


Is there a cure for psoriasis?

No. There are many avenues of treatments ranging from mild emollients to prescription cortisteroids. Psoriasis lesions and flaking is the result of hyper active skin cell growth. Science has come a long way in determining what psoriasis really is, but there is no permanent cure. The condition varies widely in different people. Some attain relief with a dollar tube of petroleum jelly, others require expensive PUVA treatments and prescription medications (i.e. Lidex, Diprolene). In general, getting some sun (nature's vitamin D concentrate) helps many psoriatic lesions, but not all. There are also hyper-D ointments (i.e. Dovenex) that need a doctor's Rx for use. Non-prescription Hydrocortisone (a milder 1% steroid) helps some psoriatics, but not others.


I understand Celiac Disease can cause skin blemishes. How can I avoid this?

Celiac Sprue (a breakdown in digestion of wheat, barley and rye proteins and their derivatives, causing an allergic reaction and damage to the small intestine) can exacerbate skin breakouts. The only preventative is to follow a strict Gluten free diet for life, which should diminish most symptoms of Celiac




ADVISORIES FROM THE AMERICAN CANCER SOCIETY:
SKIN CANCER PREVENTION


The American Cancer Society has teamed with Ladies' Home Journal as well as leading dermatologists for an exclusive report on the skin-care essentials that will keep your skin clear, smooth and healthy. People are spending more time outdoors in the sun's strong rays. It's time to buy more Sun Screen, lather it on and to practice other healthy skin habits. "There's no substitute for beautiful skin." celebrity makeup artist Kevyn Aucoin says in his book Face Forward published by Little, Brown & Co. Not only is great-looking skin the ideal canvas for makeup, but it's a sign of good health--inside and out.

While it's impossible to completely escape the effects of aging on your skin -- fine lines around the eyes start to crop up when women are in their 20s -- some TLC can help minimize the damage.

Do you believe your skin has already suffered from your love of the sun? It's not to late for you. Check with your dermatologist for the new advances in skin treatments.

By far, the most important thing you can do for your skin is to be diligent about sun protection -- it's your best defense against skin cancer. Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer, but it's also the most preventable.





TANNING DANGERS


Fad marketing would have us believe a tan skin is healthy skin. This is a dangerous myth. As the American Cancer Society avers (above), over exposure to the sun and UV rays are a major cause of skin cancer. Tanning booths are very hazardous to skin health and the practice of younger people using tanning salons is dangerous. If a preteen begins to use tanning booths, she or he is likely to develop skin cancer by age 30. Use of tanning lotions and creams are also harmful to the skin, especially the deeper dermal layers. Even aside from the high risks of cancer, overexposure to the sun and use of tanning products or booths most definitely result in premature wrinkling and skin "cracking." The very first tanning "session," the very first minute in the activated booth cause damage to even the inner layers of the skin. Do not be persuaded or influenced by slick marketers. A tan skin is just not healthy.




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BEAUTY PRODUCTS YOU CAN MAKE AT HOME

Gentle Facial Cleanser
1 cup of Oatmeal, stirred until creamy
1/2 cup of Chamomile, stirred into the oatmeal
2 drops of Lemon added. Stir mixture until creamy smooth
Lather into your face, smoothing on in small circles. Let dry. Rinse

Foot Massage Cream
1/4 cup of Peppermint Oil
10 drops of Almond Oil, mix together
Gently massage into feet to relax and relieve

Body Lotion
1/2 cup of Cocoa Butter
1 Tablespoon of Light Sesame Oil
1 Teaspoon Of Squeezed Orange Oil
Heat in a saucepan to melt, mix, stir, let cook, apply

Bubbly Bath Comforter
4 cups of Baking Soda
1 cup of Corn Starch
1/4 cup of Lavender Oil
1 cup Coconut Oil (optional)
Mix and stir until melded, store in a convenient container
Add 1/4 cup to your bath water


lip beauty"><br>
<font face = "arial"><span style = "font size:16"><b><u>HOW TO HAVE MOVIE STAR SHIMMERING LIPS<br>
FOR LESS THAN $10.00!<a/></b></u><br><br>The Catch? A Daily Regiment For 10 Days.<br><br>
<p ALIGN = "LEFT"><span style = "font size:14">Do this every day for ten days every night before bedtime::<br>
1. Apply and massage in a lanolin cream to your lips ($4.95).<br>
2. Press your lips together and wait about two minutes.<br>
3. Pat your lips with a paper towel or napkin (not tissue) ($0.05)<br>
4. Apply and massage a generous coating of A & D ointment with white jelly base ($3.95)<br><br>
That





AN EGG, MILK, BANANA FACIAL???
WE'VE GOT TO BE KIDDING, RIGHT?


No Joke & It's Better Than Botox! (Certainly Safer)

In a mixing bowl or cup, pour the inides of two rag eggs and mash 1/2 banana in 8 ozs. of milk. Beat mix to a paste. Apply to all areas of the face and neck. Leave this "mask" on for ten minutes, then wipe off gently with a moisturizing liquid (not gel or creme( lotion. Wash the face with warm (not hot) water and soft soap (i.e. Dove, Tone, Camay, Pond's). Perform this treatment for five consecutive days or nights, then once a week. You will see the magnificent results.

For Wrinkles Around The Eyes: There is a temporary appearance remedy for wrinkles and lines around the eyes that is far less costly than infomercial marketed "Botox alternative" products, also temporary, or Botox itself. (There is no permanent "cure" for lines and wrinkles, including Botox). At a pharmacy, purchase a package of pre-treated bathing washcloths (such as Sage). Warm the cloths in a microwave oven for not more than 45 seconds, according to package directions (Do not cause the cloths or package to be so hot they burn when handled). Remove one warmed cloth, fold it foursquare and pour a small (thumbnail) amount of milk and olive oil onto the cloth surface. Close your eyes. Press the heated cloth against one closed eyelid and surrounding area and hold for about one minute. Open your eyes and pat your eye area with a dry facial tissue. Take another cloth and do the same for your other eye. The results you see will be impressive and may end your desire for Botox.


RESEARCHERS DISCOVER LINK BETWEEN SKIN CONDITION AND
CELIAC DISEASE (GLUTEN INTOLERANCE, also SPRUE)


Celiac Sprue & Skin Newswise � In the first comprehensive study of the genetic basis of psoriasis, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have discovered seven new sites of common DNA variation that increase the risk of the troublesome skin condition. They also found that variations in one genetic region link psoriasis and a related joint disorder, psoriatic arthritis,as well as other forms of dermatitis to four autoimmune diseases: type 1 diabetes, Grave's disease, celiac disease and rheumatoid arthritis. The study's results appear April 4 in the open-access journal PLoS Genetics.

"Common diseases like psoriasis are incredibly complex at the genetic level," says lead investigator Anne Bowcock, Ph.D., professor of genetics at the School of Medicine. "Our research shows that small but common DNA differences are important in the development of psoriasis. Although each variation makes only a small contribution to the disease, patients usually have a number of different genetic variations that increases their risk of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis and certain other dermal afflictions (dermatitis)"

The DNA variations uncovered by the researchers point to different biological pathways that underlie psoriasis and may eventually lead to new targeted drugs and treatments that hit specific pathways, Bowcock says.

An estimated 7 million Americans have psoriasis, an autoimmune disease that occurs when the body's immune cells mistakenly attack the skin. The condition is characterized by red, scaly patches that can be itchy, painful or both. Some 10 to 30 percent of patients with psoriasis develop psoriatic arthritis, a condition that is often excruciatingly painful and debilitating.

The Washington University researchers focused on points of common variation in the genome called single nucleotide polymorphisms, or SNPs. While most of the 3 billion nucleotides that comprise DNA are thought to be identical from one person to the next, some 10 million SNPs build variation into the genome and make each individual unique. Some of these SNPs play a crucial role in a person's predisposition to disease or good health.

Using an approach known as whole genome association, the investigators scanned more than 300,000 SNPs in the genomes of 223 psoriasis patients, including 91 who had psoriatic arthritis. They compared the DNA variations in people with psoriasis to those found in 519 healthy control patients, looking for specific differences that may be linked to the disease. They then replicated their findings in a larger set of patients -- 577 with psoriasis and 576 with psoriatic arthritis -- and more than 1,200 healthy controls. Bowcock and her team found seven novel DNA variations linked to psoriasis. Four other variations associated with the disease that had been identified previously by other researchers also were confirmed by the current study.

Whole genome association studies have recently been used to identify common genetic variations that increase the risk of diseases such as breast cancer, heart disease and type 2 diabetes. They typically involve more than 1,000 patients with a particular disease to help ensure that the genetic variations identified in the study do not occur by chance. While the current study included fewer patients, nearly half of them had a sibling and, in some cases, a parent with psoriasis, which increases the odds of finding genetic variations that contribute to the disease.

The researchers found the strongest genetic risk for psoriasis lies in a region of the genome that contains the major histocompatibility complex, a collection of genes involved in distinguishing the body's own cells from foreign invaders. "Although this region has been known to play a major role in psoriasis, DNA variations in the MHC alone have been known to not be enough to trigger disease," Bowcock says. "Only 10 percent of patients with variations in the major histocompatibility complex developed psoriasis. This tells us that other genetic or environmental factors also contribute to the disease."

One MHC variation linked to psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis occurs in the gene HCP5, the scientists noted. That variation was recently reported to delay the onset of AIDS in people infected with HIV. This is particularly interesting, Bowcock says, because psoriasis can be triggered by infection with HIV or other viruses. It may be that in people with this SNP variant, viral infection triggers a larger immune response that slows the development of AIDS but also leads to excessive inflammation in the skin and bone joints in genetically susceptible individuals, leading to the onset of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis and types of dermatitis.

Notably, DNA variations on chromosome 4 were strongly linked to psoriatic arthritis. These same variations were also associated with psoriasis and had been previously linked to type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, Grave's disease (caused by an overproductive thyroid gland) and celiac disease (caused by the inability to digest gluten). "Doctors have noticed that some psoriasis patients have autoimmune diseases such as celiac disease, Grave's disease, and type 1 diabetes," Bowcock says. "But we didn't know whether this was a coincidence. Now we know there is a genetic component underlying all of these diseases." The same region of chromosome 4 contains genes that code for the signaling molecules IL2 and IL21. This opens the door to investigating whether existing drugs that block either molecule may be effective in some psoriasis patients, especially those with psoriatic arthritis.

The researchers also uncovered significant DNA variations on chromosome 13 in a genetic region involved in modifying proteins, and on chromosome 15, in a region responsible for producing a protein that activates TNF alpha (tumor necrosis factor-alpha) in a specialized immune cell known as a dendritic cell. While TNF alpha normally helps fight infections, it is thought to be a major player in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Several FDA-approved psoriasis medications work by binding to TNF-alpha, thereby preventing it from communicating with cells.

Bowcock is now involved in a larger genome-wide association study of psoriasis patients and says she expects it will uncover additional genetic variations that are associated with psoriasis and forms of dermatitis. Eventually, she predicts, such studies will lead to more effective, better-targeted therapies.

"The goal of this study and other genome-association studies is to get to personalized medicine, where you can diagnose a disease and ask what genetic risk factors this person has that points to altered pathways," she says. "Then, we can target those pathways for specific therapeutic interventions."

source: Clan Thompson Newsletter 4.08






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THE PROOF KEEPS ON COMING:
ANTIOXIDANTS HELP SKIN STAY YOUTHFUL LOOKING


The International Journal Of Cosmetology affirms, "Daily Intake of Antioxidants, Carotenoids, Minerals and Coenzyme Q10 Are Valuable For Supporting Skin Health..."

Taking a dietary supplement regimen containing Coenzyme Q10 along with nutritional antioxidants and minerals can decrease skin roughness and fine wrinkles, according to a recent study.

Sixty women were randomly assigned to either the supplement. After 12 weeks of taking the supplement once daily those in the treatment group experienced a significant improvement in skin roughness and fine wrinkles, whereas those in the placebo group did not, according to the researchers based at Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Measurements of skin roughness and fine wrinkles were carried out at the start of the study, then at four week intervals until week 12. Significant Difference is Achieved After 4 Weeks...

According to the researchers, the depth of skin roughness and fine wrinkles were not significantly different between placebo and treatment group at the beginning of the study, but by the end of week 4 there was a significant reduction in the treatment group. By the end of the study, skin roughness and fine wrinkles had reduced by 21.22 per cent, compared to a 1.7 percent improvement in the placebo group.

The satisfaction of the study participants with the treatment was also measured and questionnaires investigated whether a reduction in pore size, skin roughness, wrinkles, and decrease and homogenization of skin color was experienced.

A reduction in pore size, skin roughness and fine wrinkles, was seen by those in the treatment group at a significantly higher level than those taking the placebo, but there were no perceived changes in pigmentation levels.

The supplement regimen contains antioxidants including: Coenzyme Q10, Beta-Carotene, Grape Seed extract, French Maritime Pine Bark extract, Green Tea extract and D-alpha- tocopheryl acetate ( Vitamin E), essential minerals (Zinc and Selenium) and glycosaminoglycans (from glucosamine). CoQ10 Helps Reduce Collagen Destruction The researchers hypothesized that the Coenzyme Q10 helped fight oxidative damage and prevent DNA degradation, reducing the synthesis of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that can destroy collagen fibres.

In addition, the Vitamin E, in the form D-alpha-tocopheryl acetate, also helps to reduce collagen degradation and the minerals Zinc and Selenium can help support the cell's own antioxidant enzyme SOD (superoxide dismutase). Furthermore, skin levels of glycosaminoglycans, the main component of which is Glucosamine, drop with age, according to the scientists and a growing number of studies support daily oral administration to improve the appearance of aging skin.

Source: International Journal of Cosmetic Science "An oral nutraceutical containing antioxidants, minerals and glycosaminoglycans improves skin roughness and fine wrinkles"



RESEARCH POINTS TO A CONNECTION BETWEEN
SKIN TONE AND BODY HEALTH



(report provided courtesy Vitamin Power) Researchers from the universities of Bristol and St. Andrews in the United Kingdom have found that the color of a person's skin affects how healthy and therefore attractive they appear; They've found that diet may be crucial to achieving the most desirable complexion.

Using special computer software, a total of 54 Caucasian participants of both sexes were asked to manipulate the skin color of male and female Caucasian faces to make them look as healthy as possible. They chose to increase the rosiness, yellowness and brightness of the skin.

Most of the previous work on faces has focused on the shape of the face or the texture of the skin, but one of the most variable characteristics of the face is skin color. "We knew from our previous work that people who have more blood and more oxygen color in their skins looked healthy, and so we decided to see what other colors affect health perceptions. This has given us some clues as to what other skin pigments may relate to a healthy appearance." explained the researchers.

Skin that is slightly flushed with blood and full of oxygen suggests a strong heart and lungs, supporting the study's findings that rosier skin appeared healthy. Smokers and people with diabetes or heart disease have fewer blood vessels in their skin, and so skin would appear less rosy. The preference for more golden or yellow-toned skin as healthier might be explained by the "carotenoid pigments" that we get from the fruit and vegetables in our diet. These plant pigments are powerful antioxidants that soak up dangerous compounds produced when the body combats disease. They are also important for our immune and reproductive systems and may help prevent cancer.

Interestingly, they are the same dietary pigments that brightly colored birds and fish use to show off their healthiness and attract mates, and the researchers think that similar biological mechanisms may be at work in humans. "In the West we often think that sun tanning is the best way to improve the color of your skin, but our study suggests that living a healthy lifestyle with a good diet might actually be better." said the head of the Perception Lab at the University of St. Andrews, where the research took place.

Melanin, the pigment that causes the tan color when skin is exposed to the sun makes the skin darker and more yellow, but participants in the study chose to make skin lighter and more yellow to make it look healthier.

What we eat and not just how much we eat appears to be important for a healthy appearance. The only natural way in which we can make our skin lighter and more yellow is to eat a more healthy diet high in fruit and vegetables.

from The International Journal of Primatology, 2009

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