The Birth Of Picture Taking In the 16th century, someone identified as J. B. Porta (1541-1615), a wise Neapolitan, was able to get the image of well-lighted objects through a small hole in one of the faces of a dark chamber; with a convergent lens over the enlarged hole, he noticed that the images got even clearer and sharper. The dark chamber was thus created. The alchemist Fabricio, more or less at the same period of time, observed that silver chloride was darkened by the action of light. It was only two hundred years later that the physicist Charles made the first photographic impression, by projecting the outlines of one of his pupils on a white paper sheet impregnated with silver chloride. The outlines were white over a dark background. That rudimentary image, however, dissipated when exposed to light. In 1802, Wedgwood reproduced transparent drawings on a surface sensitized by silver nitrate and exposed to light. Nicephore Niepce (1765-1833) had the idea of using as sensitive material the bitumen, which is altered and made insoluble by light, thus keeping the images obtained unaltered. He communicated his experiences to Daguerre (1787-1851) who noticed that a iodide-covered silver plate - the daguerreotype -, by exposition to iodine fumes, was impressed by the action of light action, and that the almost invisible alteration could be developed with the exposition to mercury fumes. It was then fixed with a solution of potassium cyanide, which dissolves the unaltered iodine.
The daguerreotype (1839) was the first practical solution for the problem of capturing a still picture.. In 1841, Claudet discovered quickening substances, thanks to which exposing times were shortened. More or less at the same time period, English William Henry Talbot substituted the steel daguerreotype with paper photographs (named calotype). Niepce of Saint-Victor (1805-1870), Nicephore’s cousin, invented the photographic glass plate covered with a layer of albumin, sensitized by silver iodide. Maddox and Benett, between 1871 and 1878, discovered the gelatine-bromide plate, as well as how to sensitize it. Vogel, in 1875, sensitizing emulsions with small increments of organic composites, broadened the span of actinic radiation’s, that is, able to impress the photographic plate.
Improving the processes, George Eastman created the celluloid film roll that is used today.This was the foundation of the hallmark photographic company, Eastman Kodak.
With the development of the computers and digital images, celluloid film rolls will be replaced by chips that are more practical and have greater capacity of image storing. Kodak could not compete with the burgeoning digital technology and dwindled in 2012.
Glamour photography is a genre of photography whereby the subjects, usually female, are portrayed in a romantic or sexually alluring way. The subjects may be fully clothed or seminude, but glamour photography stops short of deliberately arousing the viewer and being pornographic photography. Glamour photography is, simply put, photography that highlights beauty, sexiness, allure, dazzle, fine lines and even romance.
Glamour photography is generally a composed image of a subject in a still position. The subjects of glamour photography are often professional models, and the photographs are normally intended for commercial use, including mass-produced calendars, pinups and for men's magazines, such as Playboy; but amateur subjects are also sometimes used, and sometimes the photographs are intended for private and personal use only. Photographers use a combination of cosmetics, lighting and airbrushing techniques to produce an appealing image of the subject.
While there is some overlap in the time periods, the term glamour photography did not begin to be commonly applied to such photography until the 1960s. Before then, the term erotic photography was more commonly used. Early types of this kind of modeling were often associated with "French postcards", small postcard sized images, that were sold by street vendors in France. In the early 1900s the pinup became popular and depicted scantily dressed women often in a playful pose seemingly surprised or startled by the viewer. The subject would usually have an expression of delight which seemed to invite the viewer to come and play. Betty Grable was one of the most famous pinup models of all time; her pinup in a bathing suit was extremely popular with World War II soldiers.
In December 1953, Marilyn Monroe was featured in the first issue of Playboy magazine. Bettie Page was the Playmate of the Month in January 1955. Playboy was the first magazine featuring nude glamour photography targeted at the mainstream consumer. <
The British Queen of Curves in the 1950s and early sixties was Pamela Green. Harrison Marks, on the encouragement of Green, took up glamour photography and together in 1957 they published the pinup magazine Kamera. Currently in England the earliest use of the word "glamour" as a euphemism for nude modeling or photography is attributed to Marks' publicity material in 1950s.
Glamour models popular in the early 1990s included Hope Talmons and Dita Von Teese and the modern era is represented in the U.S. by models like Heidi Van Horne and Bernie Dexter, while the UK's leading representative of the genre is Lucy Pinder.
Framcesco Scavullo One of the most influential and ubiquitous celebrity photographer of the 20th century, Francesco Scavullo helped define the look and style of popular music by shooting numerous album covers and magazine spreads, including a stint on the staff of Rolling Stone at the peak of the publication's notoriety. Born on Staten Island, NY, on January 16, 1921, Scavullo was the son of a cooking utensil manufacturing exec who in 1937 bought the Central Park Casino supper club, concurrently relocating the family to Manhattan. As a child Scavullo began honing his glamorous photographic style shooting his sisters and their friends, liberally applying makeup and redoing their hair so that they resembled the movie stars he worshiped; he claimed a room in the family home for a studio and darkroom, and as a teen worked as a photographer's apprentice. From there Scavullo tenured at a retail catalog production studio, followed by a stint at Harper's Bazaar under Diana Vreeland. He later joined the staff of Seventeen before landing at Town & Country, where with collaborator Tony Mazola he first began photographing celebrities. By the age of 19, Scavullo was so successful that his father purchased him a four-story carriage house in Manhattan's East Side that remained his home and studio for the next 50 years.
While still in the infancy of his career, Scavullo began honing the innovative lighting techniques that would remain the hallmark of his work throughout the decades to follow -- using large pieces of cardboard to highlight his models' faces, he also reduced spotlight glare with the aid of white umbrellas, adapting the latter technique for location shoots by stringing muslin sheets on poles. The end result was an ethereally glamorous style that elevated the world's most stunning models and celebrities into new realms of beauty. In 1952 Scavullo wed model Carol McCallison, although the couple divorced three years later. Brief tenures at Ladies' Home Journal and McCall's predated a ten-year run at Vogue that began in 1955 and propelled him to considerable celebrity of his own. Scavullo shot virtually every leading Hollywood star of the era, but also pursued more intimate and conventionally personal pursuits like flower studies. In 1965 he was hired by editor Helen Gurley Brown to shoot covers for her fledgling magazine Cosmopolitan, and it was here that Scavullo created his most renowned and enduring works -- working at Cosmo for three decades, he handpicked the models and micromanaged their clothes, hair, and makeup, a process universally dubbed "Scavullo-ization."
While Cosmopolitan proved his longest-running and highest-profile forum, Scavullo continued working for other magazines, among them Time, People, Newsweek, and Interview. For Rolling Stone and other publications he photographed dozens of pop music stars, including Mick Jagger, Janis Joplin, Cher, Madonna, and Sting as well as performers spanning from Luciano Pavarotti to Ravi Shankar to Lena Horne. Some of Scavullo's album covers rank among the most acclaimed in the field -- he shot several covers for Barbra Streisand, and with his work on Edgar Winter's They Only Come Out at Night he created what is believed to be the first cover to boast its star in full drag makeup. He even directed a CBS television special for country-pop singer Crystal Gayle. But without a doubt his most memorable cover shoot was for Diana Ross' 1980 classic diana -- against the singer's wishes, Scavullo stripped her of makeup and shot her in wet hair, wet t-shirt, and ripped jeans belonging to ill-fated fashion model Gia Carangi. The notorious diva hated the finished result until Cher pointed out it was the sexiest photo of Ross she'd ever seen -- at which time it became Ross' favorite.
In 1976 Scavullo published his first book collection, Scavullo on Beauty, one of the first-ever makeover books, it was a bestseller. Subsequent collections of his photos include 1977's Scavullo on Men, 1982's Scavullo Women, and 1984's Scavullo. After suffering a series of nervous breakdowns throughout the course of his life, he was diagnosed as a manic-depressive in 1981, later crediting the euphoric emotional highs of his condition as the key to his work. Scavullo finally resigned his Cosmopolitan post in 1995, and following the release of 1997's Scavullo: Photographs, 50 Years, a coffee-table book in celebration of his half-century of work. He entered semiretirement. After years of suffering heart problems, Francesco Scavullo died at his Manhattan home on January 6, 2004, less than two weeks before his 83rd birthday. ~ Jason Ankeny, All Music Guide
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